Guide on Anti-Asian Racism: Further Information

Contents: Further Resources | Extended Timeline | References | Return to Main Guide

Further Resources

The resources included in this section are organized by community and provide further information on Asian Canadian histories as well as historical relations and interactions between Asian Canadians and other communities in Canada, including Indigenous peoples and Black communities. Resources may be in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and/or English.

Click through the tabs below to view the resources.

Resource access: online, open access 💻 | online, log in with UTORid 🔑 | in library 🏫

加拿大 華僑 救國 奮鬥史 / Jianada hua jiao jiu guo fen dou shi, HE Xianghui 賀 湘輝 (1998, Chinese, Book 🏫)

加拿大的華人與華人社會 / Jianada de Hua ren yu Hua ren she hui, Peter S LI 李勝生, ZONG Li 宗力(1992, Chinese, Book 🏫)
The Chinese in Canada, Peter S Li (1988/1998, English, Book 🏫)

All our father's relations / 祖根父脈 / Zu gen fu mai, Alejandro YOSHIZAWA (dir.), Sarah LING (prod.) (2016, English, Film 🏫)

Beyond Chinatown: Chinese men and Indigenous women in early British Columbia, Jean BARMAN (2013, English, Article 🔑)

The Chinese in Toronto from 1878: From outside to inside the circle, Arlene CHAN (2011, English, Book 🏫 | 🔑)

Eating stories: A Chinese Canadian & Aboriginal potluck, Brandy Liên WORRALL (2007, English / Chinese / Nuu-chah-nulth, Conference proceeding 🏫)

Inspection, policing, and racism: How municipal by-laws endanger the lives of Chinese sex workers in Toronto, Elene LAM (2016, English, Article 🔑)

Jianada Yamai Jia hua ren / Canadian Jamaican Chinese: A pictorial history of Jamaican Chinese families spanning five generations, 2000, Patrick A LEE (2000, English / Chinese, Book 🏫)

Sex, intimacy, and desire among men of Chinese heritage and women of non-Asian heritage in Toronto, 1910–1950, Elise CHENIER, Claire POITRAS, Nicolas KENNY, Alan GORDON (2014, English, Article 💻)

エスニック・ジャーナリズム: 日系 カナダ人, その 言論 の 勝利 / Esunikku jānarizumu: Nikkei Kanadajin, sono genron no shōri, TAMURA Norio 田村 紀雄 (2003, Japanese, Book 🏫)

カナダ 移民 排斥史: 日本 の 漁業 移民 / Kanada imin haisekishi: Nihon no gyogyō imin, SHINPO Mitsuru 新保 満 (1985, Japanese, Book 🏫)

カナダ日本人漁業移民の見た風景: 前川家「古写真」コレクション / Kanada Nihonjin gyogyō imin no mita fūkei: Maekawa-ke "koshashin" korekushon / Scenes from the lives of Japanese fishermen immigrants in Canada: A collection of historical photos from the Maekawa family, KAWAHARA Norifumi 河原典史 (2013, Japanese, Book 🏫)

日系 カナダ人 の 歴史 / Nikkei Kanadajin no rekishi / History of Japanese Canadians: Swayed by Canada-Japan relations, IINO Masako 飯野 正子 (1997, Japanese, Book 🏫)

The Black savage and the Yellow peril: The differing consequences of the racialization of the Blacks and Japanese in Canada, Yuko NAKA (1997, English, Thesis 🔑)

Bukkyo Tozen: A history of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism in Canada, 1905-1995, Terry WATADA (1996, English, Book 🏫 | 🔑)

Multiculturalism in an ethnic minority: The reconstruction of identity by Korean-Japanese immigrants in Canada, Akwi SEO (2001, English, Article 🔑)

Spirit of redress: Japanese Canadians in conference, Cassandra KOBAYASHI, Roy MIKI, National Association for Japanese Canadians (1989, English, Conference Proceeding 🏫)

Witness to loss: Race, culpability, and memory in the dispossession of Japanese Canadians, Jordan STANGER-ROSS, Pamela H. (Haruchiyo) SUGIMAN (eds.) (2017, English, Book 🏫)

우리들 의 이야기 / Uridŭl ŭi iyagi / Our story, 캐나다 한인 여성회 자문 위원회 K'aenada Hanin Yŏsŏnghoe Chamun Wiwŏnhoe KCWA Family & Services Advisory Committee (2013, Korean, Book 🏫)

토론토 한인 연합 교회 30년사 / Tʻorontʻo Hanin Yŏnhap Kyohoe 30-yŏnsa, 토론토 한인 연합 교회 30년사 편찬 위원회 Tʻorontʻo Hanin Yŏnhap Kyohoe 30-yŏnsa Pʻyŏnchʻan Wiwŏnhoe (1997, Korean, Book 🏫)

뿌리 깊은 우정: 한국・캐나다 수교 40-주년 기념 사진전 및 회화전 / A deep-rooted friendship / Ppuri kipʻŭn ujŏng: Hanʼguk, Kʻaenada sugyo 40-chunyŏn kinyŏm sajinjŏn mit hoehwajŏn, Association for Korea-Canada Culture Exchange (2003, Korean / English, Book 🏫)

From strangers to partners: Canadian-Korean relations (1888 - 1978), Jiwon Tina PARK (2018, English, Thesis 🔑)

Multiculturalism in an ethnic Minority: The Reconstruction of Identity by Korean-Japanese Immigrants in Canada, Akwi SEO (2001, English, Article 🔑)

Understanding the integration experiences of Korean Canadians, Bong-Hwan KIM (2013, English, Thesis 🔑)

Exile, transnational connections, and the construction of identity: Tibetan immigrants in Montreal, Mary Jane GARDNER (2000, English, Thesis 🏫 | 🔑)

Multilingualism in emerging diasporas: A Tibetan case study, Seonaigh MACPHERSON, Dawa Bhuti GHOSO (2008, English, Article 🔑)

Refusal as political practice, Carole McGRANAHAN (2018, English, Article 🏫 | 🔑)

Tibetans in Alberta and their cultural identity, Lobsang DARGYAY (1988, English, Article 🔑)

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Extended Timeline

Building on the timeline presented in the Anti-Asian Racism Resource Guide, this extended timeline highlights more events and developments throughout Asian Canadian histories. As with the shorter timeline, this list is not comprehensive, and we encourage you to explore further.

Click through the tabs below for information relevant to each period.

1788 First Chinese settlers arrive in Nootka Sound

1858 Chinese immigrants begin arriving in pursuit of Gum San 金山 (Gold Mountain)

1858 Origins of "Chinatowns" in Canada

1872 British Columbia disenfranchises Chinese and Indigenous peoples

1877 Nagano Manzo, the first Japanese permanent settler, arrives in New Westminster BC

1878 British Columbia bans the hiring of Chinese persons for public works

1878 Chinese-run laundries are established in Toronto ON

1879 Agitation against the hiring of Chinese labourers for the Canadian Pacific Railway, including a petition organized by President of the Workingmen’s Protection Association (later known as the Anti-Chinese Association), Noah Shakespeare, to the federal government

1880-1885 At least 17,000 Chinese immigrants arrive to work on the Canadian Pacific Railway

1884 A $15 license fee for gold prospecting is introduced to discourage Chinese miners

1885 Ontario experiences an influx of Chinese people, who arrive in search of work and shelter following the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a resurgence of anti-Asian racism in the west

1885 The Chinese Immigration Act imposes a $50 head tax on each new Chinese arrival

1885 The Electoral Franchise Act excludes Chinese, most Indigenous people and women from voting in federal elections

1886 Vancouver's Chinatown begins taking shape on a city block between Carrall and Columbia Streets along Dupont Street (renamed East Pender Street in 1904)

1887 What would become the second-largest Japanese Canadian settlement prior to WWII begins forming in Steveston, BC, with many arriving from Wakayama Prefecture

1890 Japantown, the largest pre-WWII Japanese settlement, starts developing around Hastings Mill and Powell Street in Vancouver

1895 British Columbia revises legislation to deny franchise to all citizens of Asian descent

1898 the Electoral Franchise Act is repealed under Wilfrid Laurier's government to be replaced with the Franchise Act, which extends franchise to Asians

1900 Naturalized Canadian citizen Tomekichi Homma applies to be included on the voter’s list. The Collector of Voters denies his application

1901 The Chinese Immigration Act is revised to increase the head tax to $100

1902 The Laundry Association in Toronto requests that a license fee be levied on all laundries to prevent the establishment of more Chinese-run laundries. At that point, around 100 laundries in Toronto are operated by Chinese people

1902 The Privy Council of Britain upholds the disenfranchisement of persons of Asian descent. This denial of voting rights has further consequences. Persons of Asian descent are now also barred from holding public office or being accredited as lawyers, pharmacists, architects, chartered accountants and teachers

1903 The head tax of the Chinese Immigration Act is inflated to $500

1905 A Chinese community gathers around Queen Street East and Elizabeth Street in Toronto ON

1905 The first Jodo Shinshu (Japanese Buddhist) temple in Canada is established in a rented room at the Ishikawa Ryokan on Powell Street

1906 The first Japanese language school in Vancouver is opened by the Japanese Consulate

1907 Anti-Asian riots erupt in Vancouver BC from September 7-9, with protestors converging on Chinatown and Japantown and attacking homes, businesses, and residents. Rioters were also against Indian immigration and labour

1908 Japanese women begin migrating to Canada as “picture brides” in response to the Gentlemen's Agreement. Women in Japan can obtain a passport if they register marriage to a Japanese man in Canada. お見合い 結婚 omiai kekkon (picture marriages) are one workaround

1908 Saskatchewan follows suit and denies the vote to Chinese

1908 The Hayashi-Lemieux Agreement restricts immigration from Japan

1910s Early immigration from Korea to Canada is driven by missionary scholarships that allow Koreans to study abroad and require them to return to Korea once their studies are complete

1911 The fall of the Qing government in China results in the closure of the Empire Reform Association at Queen Street East and George Street in Toronto ON. Chinese-run businesses gradually spread along Elizabeth Street, from Queen Street East to Dundas Street West

1912 Saskatchewan prohibits Chinese establishments from hiring White women

1914 British Columbia refuses to allow the Komagata Maru to dock and escorts the ship out of the harbour after 2 months

1914 Ontario passes legislation to ban Chinese employers from hiring White waitresses. Following intervention by the Consul General of China, the law is not enforced

1914 Some 200 Chinese Canadians volunteer to fight in WWI

1916 Issei from British Columbia travel to Alberta to volunteer for WWI efforts and are promised enfranchisement upon their return

1916, 1919 The First Chinese Canadian and Japanese Canadian labour unions are formed

1918 Toronto City Council asks Police Commissioners to issue business licenses to British-born or naturalized subjects. The Consul General from China protests the request and the Chief Constable confirms that the request is not possible as subjects of allied nations, including China, hold treaty privileges

1919 400 men and boys riot in Elizabeth Street Chinatown

1919-1924 The number of fishing licenses granted to "other than white residents" in British Columbia is reduced

1920 With the Dominion Elections Act, the federal government makes one's ability to vote in federal elections contingent on one's ability to vote in provincial ones

1921 The Asiatic Exclusion League is formed

1922 Chinese grade-school students in Victoria BC strike for a year against segregated schooling

1923 The annual quota for Japanese male immigrants to Canada is reduced from 400 to 150

1923 The Chinese Exclusion Act replaces the Chinese Immigration Act with an outright ban

1928 Chinese café owners in Toronto are banned from hiring white waitresses

1928 Members of the Young Men’s Christian Institute (originally the Toronto Chinese Christian Association) help to establish the Chinese Church of Christ

1928 The agreement is amended to limit immigration from Japan to 150 men, women, and children total

1929 Issei fisher Jun Kisawa successfully gets restrictions on motorized fishing boat use by Japanese Canadians removed

1931 WWI veterans of Japanese origin are finally granted franchise in British Columbia

1936 The Japanese Canadian Citizens League unsuccessfully petitions Ottawa for franchise

1938 State surveillance by the RCMP of persons of Japanese heritage begins

1938 The New Canadian Newspaper is established

1939 Canada invokes the War Measures Act, which allows the state to impose sweeping measures in the name of national security

1939 Despite resistance from both the Chinese Canadian community and officials, Chinese Canadians volunteer for WWII efforts

1941 Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Canada declares war on Japan and Order-in-Council PC 9591, passed on December 7, mandates the registration of all Japanese nationals and those naturalized after 1922 with the Registrar of Enemy Aliens

1941 Recommendations against allowing Japanese Canadians in the Canadian military

1941 Starting in March, all Japanese Canadians over 16 are required to register with the RCMP

1941 All persons of Japanese heritage, regardless of citizenship, are required to register with the Registrar of Enemy Aliens

1941 BC begins confiscating properties and closing businesses owned by Japanese Canadians

1942 Confiscated properties are placed in the so-called care of the Custodian of Enemy Alien Property

1942 On February 24, Order-in-Council PC 1486 authorizes the Minister of Justice to control the movements of all persons of Japanese origin within the protected area. Two days later, the minister declares the confiscation of cars, cameras, and radios owned by Japanese Canadians, a dusk-to-dawn curfew, and that all persons of “the Japanese race” must leave the coast

1942 On February 7, all 18-45-year-old male "enemy aliens" are removed from the area. Most of the men are sent to road camps in the Rockies, however some are sent to Angler ON

1942 On January 16, an area within 100 miles or 160 kilometres of the west coast is designated “protected” under Order-in-Council PC 365. By October, 22,000 Japanese Canadians are uprooted from the area

1942 On June 29, PC 5523 authorizes the Director of Soldier Settlement to purchase or lease confiscated properties. The Director purchases 572 farms without consulting owners

1942 On March 4, BC establishes the Security Commission to plan, supervise, and direct the expulsion of Japanese Canadians

1942 On March 16, Japanese Canadians begin arriving at Vancouver's Hastings Park holding centre. All mail to and from Japanese Canadians is also subject to censors

1942 On March 25, the BC Security Commission rolls out its plan to send men to road camps and women and children to ghost town detention camps. Resistance leads to incarceration at prisoner-of-war Camp 101 in Angler ON

1942 The Nisei Mass Evacuation Group forms to protest family separations and advocate for removal in family groups by refusing to show up for transportation to labour camps or demanding internment as enemy aliens. The government eventually agrees, however almost 800 men are also sent to Angler ON

1942 All persons of Japanese heritage are forcibly removed from the west coast and relocated to internment camps

1943 On January 23, the Custodian of Enemy Alien Property is authorized by an Order-in-Council to dispose of confiscated properties without consent from the owners

1944 On August 4, Prime Minister King declares that Japanese Canadians must either move east of the Rockies or be "voluntarily repatriated" to Japan

1944 Japanese and Japanese Canadians must choose between moving east and out of British Columbia or being deported to Japan

1945 150 nisei are accepted into the Canadian Intelligence Corps

1945 All internment camps are closed, except for the New Denver site, where the BC Security Commission office is closed in 1957

1946 “Voluntary repatriations” begin on May 31, with some 10,000 Japanese Canadians who refuse to leave their homes in BC deemed volunteers. The deportation order is cancelled on January 24, 1947, after 4,000 Japanese Canadians have already been exiled

1946 Businesses and properties in the Elizabeth Street Chinatown are bought up and expropriated by the City of Toronto

1946 The National Emergency Powers Act replaces the War Measures Act to maintain restrictions against Japanese Canadians

1946-1958 Toronto City Council prepares to build a new civic square by acquiring and expropriating the site where the Elizabeth Street Chinatown is located

1947 The Bird Commission is formed to assess the value of losses incurred to Japanese Canadians

1947 The Chinese Exclusion Act is repealed

1947 The National Japanese Canadian Citizens’ Association (NJCCA) forms. The organization is now known as the National Association of Japanese Canadians

1947 The Canadian Citizenship Act grants franchise to Chinese and South Asian Canadians, but not to Japanese Canadians and Indigenous peoples

1948 Tae-yon Whang, the first Korean permanent settler, arrives in Toronto ON

1949 Wartime restrictions against Japanese Canadians are lifted and franchise is granted

1950 Order-in-Council PC 4364 revokes an order prohibiting immigration of “enemy aliens” and provides for some of those deported to re-immigrate to Canada

1950 The NJCCA appeals the findings of the Bird Commission, which valued losses at $1.2 million, to account for further claims, indemnities and general losses. The appeal is denied

1951 Chinatown West, along Spadina Avenue, begins taking shape in Toronto ON

1955-1961 The City of Toronto begins to buy up, expropriate, and tear down Toronto’s first Chinatown along Elizabeth Street to clear land for a new City Hall and civic square. Residents and business owners begin moving to Chinatown West. When construction begins in 1961, two-thirds of this Chinatown is gone

1962, 1967 Canada removes its quota on "nonwhite" immigrants and introduces a points-based immigration system based on skills and education. A new wave of immigrants begins to arrive and new Asian Canadian communities start forming

1967 City planners seek to relocate the remaining section of the Elizabeth Street Chinatown to build office buildings in the area north of City Hall, which also results in land speculation. The community responds by forming the Save Chinatown Committee to preserve the area and its heritage

1967 The Save Chinatown Committee forms to preserve the remaining sections of the Elizabeth Street Chinatown

1969 City Council endorses the preservation of Elizabeth St Chinatown following a report from the Save Chinatown Committee. The area continues to face pressures for relocation and redevelopment, however, and eventually falls into decline

1970 Toronto's East Chinatown, around Gerrard Street and Broadview Avenue, starts forming

1970 Koreatown emerges in the Annex in Toronto ON

1971 Tibetan resettlement in Canada begins

1975-1982 Over 60,000 refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, who fled the region by land and sea, were admitted to Canada

1977 On the centennial of Japanese Canadian history, informal groups begin gathering to discuss redress

1977 Chinese communities and new plazas develop in Scarborough

1979 An investigative report aired on the CTV W5 program significantly misrepresents that some 100,000 university admissions are being given to foreign students primarily from China. Further examination finds that many of these students are from Canada

1979 Chinatown West along Spadina Avenue is designated an area of "Special Identity,” which requires that future development be compatible with the area’s existing form and character

1980 Parliament issues the first official recognition of the contributions made by Chinese Canadians to Canada, including those of the railway workers

1982, 1989 Permanent memorials are established in honour of Chinese railway workers

1983 Dak Leon Mark files a claim for the return of the amount paid for head tax with his local Member of Parliament. The request is taken to Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who denies the request

1984 An all-party parliamentary committee releases a report in March recommending that Canada acknowledge the mistreatment of Japanese Canadians during and after WWII and work to negotiate redress

1984 At a January council meeting in Winnipeg, the National Association of Japanese Canadians passes a unanimous motion to seek official acknowledgement and redress for injustices against Japanese Canadians during and after WWII, as well as a review of the War Measures Act

1984 Hate literature against Chinese immigrants surfaces in Scarborough ON in response to the increase in Chinese shopping malls in the area

1985 The Toronto City Council gives unanimous support for negotiations between the federal government and the National Association of Japanese Canadians and for a just settlement to be reached

1986 Commissioned by the National Association of Japanese Canadians, Price Waterhouse Associates finds that income and property losses amount to at least $443 million dollars ($867 million in 2018 dollars)

1987 An all-party parliamentary resolution seeks to recognize the head tax and Chinese Exclusion Act as discriminatory

1987 On July 12, the National Association of Japanese Canadians calls on Prime Minister Brian Mulroney to directly intervene to resolve the redress issue

1987 The National Coalition for Japanese Canadian Redress forms to mobilize public support for the redress movement

1987 Tibetans in Canada and their supporters found the Canada Tibet Committee

1988 On September 22, the Terms of Agreement are signed by the National Association of Japanese Canadians and Government of Canada, including a formal acknowledgement, apology, and compensation of $21,000 for each successful claimant

1988 Supporters of Redress hold a rally at Parliament Hill in Ottawa in April

2000 The Chinese Canadian National Council files a class-action lawsuit against Canada on behalf of head taxpayers and their families. The suit is struck down

2006 Following continued calls and advocacy, the Parliament of Canada formally apologizes on June 22 for the historical mistreatment of Chinese in Canada. Head taxpayers and the spouses of those payers who had since passed away receive symbolic payments

2007 A Heritage Toronto plaque is unveiled at City Hall to commemorate the Elizabeth Street Chinatown

2007 The Tibetan Canadian Cultural Centre is established in Etobicoke ON

2007 The second Tibetan resettlement program begins

2008 British Columbia passes a motion to formally apologize for the Komagata Maru incident on May 23

2008 In a contentious event met with community outrage, Prime Minister Stephen Harper apologizes to a crowd of about 8,000 in Surrey, BC. The community does not recognize the apology

2012 A federally funded memorial for the Komagata Maru incident is completed at the Harbour Green Park, Vancouver

2016 Prime Minister Justin Trudeau delivers a formal apology in the House of Commons for the pain and suffering caused by the Komagata Maru incident

2020-present The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzes a resurgence of anti-Asian racism

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References

Select the tab below to see the external resources referenced to develop the list of events in the Timeline and Extended Timeline sections of the guide.

2008 Legislative Session: 4th Session, 38th Parliament. Nos. 80 and 81 Votes and Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. (2008, May 23). Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. https://www.leg.bc.ca:443/legacy

Adamski, B. K. (2007). Suian Maru Voyagers. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/suian-maru-voyagers

Asia-Canada. (n.d.). In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/asia-canada

Ayukawa, M. (2003). A Valuable Addition to the Japanese Canadian National Museum Archives. Nikkei Images: Japanese Canadian National Museum Newsletter, 8 (2), 1–2. https://centre.nikkeiplace.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2003-Volume-8…

Bhutila Karpoche. (n.d.). Bhutila Karpoche. https://www.bhutilakarpoche.ca/

British Columbia, Ministry of Education, British Columbia, & Ministry of Education. (2002). Internment and redress, the Japanese Canadian experience: A resource guide for Social Studies 11 teachers. Ministry of Education. https://japanesecanadianhistory.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Secondar…

Canada. (1885). Acts of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada. M. Cameron.

Canada Tibet Committee. (2021, August 13). The Evolution of Canada’s Tibet Policy. https://canadatibet.com/nullam-non-vehicula-nunc/

Canadian Heritage. (2021, April 29). Events in Asian Canadian history. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/campaigns/asian-heritage-mon…

CBC News. (2008, August 4). Harper apologizes in B.C. for 1914 Komagata Maru incident. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/harper-apologizes-in-b-…

CBC News. (2010, December 12). Ottawa funds Komagata Maru memorial. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/ottawa-funds-komagata-m…

CBC News. (2016, May 18). Trudeau gives Komagata Maru apology in House of Commons. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/komagata-maru-live-apology-1.3587827

BC Labour Heritage Centre Society. (2018, May 23). The Asiatic Exclusion League Riot, 1907. https://www.labourheritagecentre.ca/asiatic-exclusion-league-riot-1907/

Chinese Canadian History. (n.d.). Chinese Canadian Military Museum Society. https://www.ccmms.ca/chinese-canadian-history/

Chinese Canadians. (2020, March 24). Veterans Affairs Canada. https://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/people-and-stories/chinese-c…

Chinese immigrants protest racism on TV. (1980, January 22). In CBC Digital Archives. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/chinese-immigration-protesting-racism…

City of Toronto. (2017, September 18). Chinese History in Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). https://www.toronto.ca/city-government/accountability-operations-custom…

Clément, D. (n.d.). 1939-45 Second World War. Canada’s Human Rights History. https://historyofrights.ca/encyclopaedia/main-events/1939-world-war-two/

Courtney, J. C. (2007). Right to Vote in Canada. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/franchise

Daubs, K. (2017, August 12). A walking tour of Toronto’s Koreatown reveals family history. The Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/08/12/a-walking-tour-of-torontos-…

David Lam Centre. (n.d.). A Brief Chronology of Chinese Canadian History. Simon Fraser University. http://www.sfu.ca/chinese-canadian-history/chart_en.html#

Denise Cook Design, & Birmingham & Wood Architects and Planners. (2017). Japanese Canadian Historic Places: Historical Context Thematic Framework. British Columbia. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/british-columbians-our-governments/ou…

Ember, M., Ember, C. R., & Skoggard, I. A. (Eds.). (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: Immigrant and refugee cultures around the world (Vol. 1–2). Springer.

Gentlemen’s Agreement, 1908. (n.d.). Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. https://pier21.ca/research/immigration-history/gentlemens-agreement-1908

Gonnami, T. (2005, February 19). The Perception Gap: A Case Study of Japanese-Canadians [Workshop]. Communication among Japanese-Canadians: The Role of Non-Profit and For-Profit Organizations in Media and Education Service Industries, British Columbia. https://doi.org/10.14288/1.0041749

Greenaway, J. E. (2008, April 8). The New Canadian – A History. The Bulletin: A Journal of Japanese Canadian Community, History + Culture. http://jccabulletin-geppo.ca/the-new-canadian-a-history/

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2011, March 24). ARCHIVED – Temporary Public Policy Concerning Tibetans Living in the State of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/man…

Izumi, M. (2015). Japanese Canadian exclusion and incarceration. In Densho Encyclopedia. Densho Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.densho.org/Japanese%20Canadian%20exclusion%20and%2…

Japanese Canadian: A Story of Hope, Resilience and Growth. (n.d.). [Online exhibition]. Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre. https://jccc.on.ca/heritage/exhibitions/online-exhibition

Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre. (n.d.). Life in the Canadian Internment and POW Camps: POW Camp—1942, Angler, Ontario. Discover Nikkei. http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/nikkeialbum/albums/6/slide/

Japanese Canadian History. (2017, December 23). National Association of Japanese Canadians. http://najc.ca/japanese-canadian-history/

Provincial Elections Act. Revised Statutes of British Columbia, c.67. British Columbia. 1874 Office of the Legislature. https://www.openschool.bc.ca/bambooshoots/gallery/gr10/Lesson3_Loss_of_…

Kim, J.-G. (1984). How Koreans Came to Call Toronto Their Home. Toronto’s People, 6 (1), 176–180. https://cdm22007.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/MHSO2/id/2840

Kong, J., Ip, J., Huang, C., & Lin, K. (2021). A Year of Racist Attacks: Anti-Asian Racism Across Canada One Year Into The COVID-19 Pandemic. https://drive.google.com/file/d/193CdlC8uq623VRlAzoO3ShfDTEutXQi2/view

Mackie, J. (2014, February 20). Japantown: Vancouver’s Lost Neighbourhood - Part 1. Discover Nikkei. http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/journal/2014/2/20/japantown-vancouver-…

McRae, M. (n.d.). The story of the Komagata Maru. Canadian Museum for Human Rights. https://humanrights.ca/story/the-story-of-the-komagata-maru

Oh, E. (2017, December 19). Korean-Canadian History. Vancouver Asian Heritage Month Society. https://explorasian.org/learn/education/korean-canadian/

Pawson, C. (2016, August 7). New Komagata Maru plaque marks South Asian Canadians’ early struggle for justice. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/komagata-maru-plaque-va…

Price, J., & Thomson, G. E. (2017, December 8). John Price and Grace Eiko Thomson: Remembering B.C. civil rights leader Tomekichi Homma. The Georgia Straight. https://www.straight.com/news/1006111/john-price-and-grace-eiko-thomson…

Redress Campaign: Charter challenged. (n.d.). Road to Justice. http://www.roadtojustice.ca/redress-campaign

Reference Timeline. (n.d.). Japanese Canadian History. https://japanesecanadianhistory.net/historical-overview/reference-timel…

Robinson, G. (2017). Internment of Japanese Canadians. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/internment-of-japanes…

Sunahara, A. (2011). Japanese Canadians. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/japanese-canadians

The Canadian Press. (2008, August 3). Sikhs unhappy with PM’s Komagata Maru apology. CTV News. https://www.ctvnews.ca/sikhs-unhappy-with-pm-s-komagata-maru-apology-1…

Tibetan Heritage Month Act, 2020, 131, Legislative Assembly of Ontario, 1, Statutes of Ontario, 2020 (2020). https://www.ola.org/en/legislative-business/bills/parliament-42/session…

Timeline of Sikhs in Canada: 1809 – Present. (n.d.). Sikh Heritage Museum of Canada. https://shmc.ca/shmc-timeline-english

Wong-Chu, J., Tzang, L., & Cho, C. (2013, March 8). History of Asian Canadian Communities: Asian North American History. Vancouver Asian Heritage Month Society. https://explorasian.org/learn/education/

Yatabe, S., & Craig, E. (2019, March 19). Japanese Canadian Participation in World War I and World War II. Discover Nikkei. http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/journal/2019/3/19/japanese-canadian-ve…

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Last updated: December 10, 2021